Brotli is a data format specification for data streams compressed with a specific combination of the general-purpose LZ77 lossless compression algorithm, Huffman coding and 2nd order context modelling.
In simple terms, Brotli is similar to the gzip web compression. It was developed by Google. As of the present date, Brotli is supported by all major web browsers – Microsoft Edge, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera and Safari.
Also, Brotli is supported by web servers – Apache HTTP Server (w/ mod_brotli module), nginx (w/ ngx_brotli module), LiteSpeed Web Server, Node.js (w/ shrink-ray community module) .
cURL supports Brotli since version 7.57 (November 2017).
To enable Brotli on your cPanel/WHM server:
- Log in to your WHM panel as root.
- Navigate to Software->EasyApache 4
- Click the Customize button
- Now on the Apache Modules tab, search and select mod_brotli.
- Click the Next button few times and in the end click Provision button.
- You will see the confirmation message The provision process is complete.
You can also add support for Brotli via the command line:
root@web [~]# yum install ea-apache24-mod_brotli.x86_64
Check if your site uses Brotli at https://tools.keycdn.com/brotli-test In our case the result is:
The Content-encoding header will be:
On a cPanel web server there are many logs. We made here a list of them:
|cPanel, WHM and Webmail
|Access logs and user actions
|Account transfers and misc. logs
|Auditing log (account creations, deletions, etc)
|Backup transport logs
|Brute force protection (cphulkd) log
|Brute force protection (cphulkd) error log
|cPanel dnsadmin dns clustering daemon
|cPanel taskqueue processing demon
|EasuApache build logs
|License updates & errors
|Locale database modifications
|Login errors (cpsrvd)
|Logs for all incoming requests for cpsrvd
||/var/cpanel/squirrelmail/ (nothing logged)
|MySQL upgrade log
|Per-account bandwidth history – cached
|Per-account bandwidth history human readable
|Service status logs
|Update analysis reporting
|Update (upcp) log
|Webdisk (cpdavd) log
|Website statistics log
|cPanel support access
|FTP transaction log
|Log for FTP transfers
|Login attempts/general info
|Named (BIND), NSD, MyDNS, SSHD
|Login attempts/general info
|Mail delivery (Exim)
|Delivery & receipt log
|Incoming mail queue
|Log of messages rejected based on ACLs or other policies
|Unexpected/fatal error log
|Mail retrieval & Spam Protection (Courier, Dovecot, SpamAssassin)
|IMAP/POP login attempts, transactions, fatal errors and spam scoring
|General information and errors
|Log for munin
|Top Memory and CPU Consumers (dcpumon)
|Top processes consuming CPU & Memory
|Web Server (Apache/httpd)
|Apache restarts done through cPanel/WHM
|Domain access logs
|Processing of log splitting
|Suexec audit log
|suPHP audit log
|Web server & CGI application error log
The cPanel Log Files
Due to abusive users, many Internet Service Providers (ISPs) block SMTP port 25. So you may want to set up another port on your web server instead of the default 25.
SMTP is the acronym for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a protocol used to send emails. More info on the Wikipedia page
We will show you here two ways on how to add another SMTP port in WHM.
1.Log into WHM as root
2. Navigate to Service Configuration >> Service Manager
3.Look for Exim Mail Server (on another port) option. Check the two checkboxes – cPanel will enable and monitor this service. Add the desired port(s) in the right field. The notice states: Useful for providers that block port 25 (multiple comma-delimited ports may be added).
4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click the Save button.
1.Log into WHM as root
2. Navigate to Service Configuration >> Exim Configuration Manager
3. The Exim configuration page will open. Click on the Advanced Editor top tab.
4.Look for daemon_smtp_ports option and add your desired port(s). cPanel notice for this option: This option specifies one or more default SMTP ports on which the Exim daemon listens.
5. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click the Save button.
Instead of adding another SMTP port you can instruct users to use Secure SMTP ports – 465 or 587. Usually these ports are not blocked by IPSs.
Don’t forget to add the new port(s) to the allowed ports in your firewall’s configuration.
This KB article is intended for CentOS with cPanel servers.
You are selling shared hosting accounts and you want to be sure that your users don’t exceed their disk space quotas? You can easily find if the disk quotas work as expected.
Mainly, as root, you will create a big file size (that added to a user account will exceed (s)he’s quota) and attempt to assign it to a user. Steps:
- Log in to the server as root
- Navigate to a user’s home directory (in this example the user is plothost) and create a file of 100M (or 1000M etc). In our test case the plothost‘s plan has 50M space – so, if everything works as expected, we will not be able to add a 100M file.
root@web [~]# cd /home/plothost/
root@web [/home/plothost]# dd if=/dev/zero of=test_file bs=100M count=1
1+0 records in
1+0 records out
104857600 bytes (105 MB) copied, 0.527468 s, 399 MB/s
- Check the ownership of the file
root@web [/home/plothost]# ll test_file
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 104857600 Jan 23 11:25 test_file
- Now try to assign the test file to the user
root@web [/home/plothost]# chown plothost:plothost test_file
chown: changing ownership of 'test_file': Disk quota exceeded
You see the message Disk quota exceeded – this means the disk quota is working fine.
If your disk quotas do not work as expected, please check these cPanel articles:
cPanel – Initial Quota Setup | cPanel – How to Fix Quotas
cPanel is considered one of the best web hosting control panels. If you are using other control panels (like Odin Plesk, DirectAdmin, VestaCP etc) you may consider switching to cPanel.
cPanel offers free migration service. One limitation is that only few source control panels are supported. These are Odin Plesk(Parallels), DirectAdmin and Ensim.
For more details, visit the cPanel Migration Services and Guides
If you are a site owner, our suggestion is to contact your new host and ask for advice on moving to cPanel. Many hosts offer free migration to cPanel.
To switch yourself your site to cPanel there are mainly some steps:
- Copy the site’s files from the old server to the new server. You can use a program like FileZilla. Check our KB article Use FileZilla to connect via FTP to your web hosting account
- Copy the MySQL/MariaDB database(s). Here you need to export the database(using a control panel utility or phpMyAdmin) and import it in cPanel. cPanel offers phpMyAdmin out-of-the-box.
- Setup any email accounts, email forwarders, email filters, email autoresponders etc.
For server administrators/web hosts, cPanel provides a guide on How to Manually Migrate Accounts to cPanel from Unsupported Control Panels